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Army Commands

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Numerous Army level commands were created and disolved by both the North and South during the Civil War in response to the ever changing tactical and strategic situation in the field.  Most people are familiar with the North's Army of the Potomac and the South's Army of Northern Virginia (which, by the way, was also named the Army of the Potomac when it was under the command of P.G.T. Beauregard at First Bull Run) but there were far more armies in the field during the war.  This page contains brief summaries of these Union and Confederate armies.
 
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UNION ARMIES
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Army of the Potomac
 
By the consolidation of the Department of Washington and the
Department of Northeastern Virginia, July 25, 1861, the Military
District of the Potomac was constituted and placed under command of
Major-General George B. McClellan. On August 15, 1861, the
Department, or Army of the Potomac was created from it, and as such
it was known thereafter. Major-General McClellan assumed command of
this army August 20, 1861. As then constituted, it was organized in
fourteen brigades composed largely of the troops (regular army and
volunteer) of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, under
Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell, and new organizations. Most of
these brigades had artillery and some of them cavalry. McClellan
immediately applied his military knowledge to remodeling the army,
and in October a new organization was announced. The division was now
the unit, and there were fourteen, including one stationed at
Baltimore. There were also one provisional brigade, a provost-guard,
a cavalry command, and a cavalry reserve. During the winter of 1861-
62, the Army of the Potomac was thoroughly drilled. A new
organization was announced in March, 1862, and this the army
retained, except while Burnside created the grand division, until it
was discontinued, June 28, 1865. The corps were the units, and their
number varied from time to time. There were also the provost-guard,
the guard for general headquarters, a full artillery, and cavalry
reserve. A cavalry division was formed in July, 1862, and reorganized
as a cavalry corps in February, 1863. The successive commanders of
the Potomac were :
Major-General George B. McClellan to November 9, 1862; Major-
General A. E. Burnside to January 26, 1863; Major-General Joseph
Hooker to June 28, 1863, being succeeded by Major-General George G.
Meade, who remained at its head until it was discontinued, June 28,
1865, except for a short interval in January, 1865, when Major-
General John G. Parke was in temporary command.
 
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Army Of The Tennessee
 
The troops in the Military District of Cairo were under the
command of Brigadier-General U. S. Grant from August 1, 1861, until
February, 1862. The District of West Tennessee was organized February
17, 1862, and Grant was at its head until October 16th. His forces
were known as the Army of West Tennessee, and were included in those
of the Department of Mississippi, under Major-General Halleck. With
this force, consisting of six divisions and some unassigned troops,
Grant fought the battle of Shiloh. On October 16, 1862, the
Department of Tennessee was de Cairo, western Kentucky and Tennessee,
and northern Mississippi. Grant was commander until October 24, 1863,
when the Military Division of the Mississippi was organized to
include the Departments of the Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland, and of
Arkansas. The troops in the Department of Tennessee were designated
the Thirteenth Army Corps until December 18, 1862, when they were
reorganized into the Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and
Seventeenth corps. Succeeding Grant, this force, usually called the
Army of the Tennessee, was successively commanded by Major-Generals
W. T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John A. Logan, and O. O. Howard.
This army took part in the capture of Vicksburg, battle of
Chattanooga, Atlanta campaign, and Sherman's campaigns in Georgia and
the Carolinas. A detachment of it was with the Red River expedition,
in 1864.
 
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Army of the Ohio And
Army of the Cumberland
 
The Department of Kentucky, which constituted the whole of
that State within a hundred miles of the Ohio River, was merged in
the Department of the Cumberland, comprising the States of Kentucky
and Tennessee, August 15, 1861. On November 9th, it was renamed the
Department of the Ohio, the States of Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana
being added. The troops in this region (over whom McClellan,
Rosecrans, O. M. Mitchel, Robert Anderson, and W. T. Sherman had, at
different times and places, control) were now organized into the Army
of the Ohio, with Major-General Don Carlos Buell in command. Although
the department was merged into that of Mississippi in March, 1862,
the Army of the Ohio retained its name. This was the body that
brought such timely assistance to Grant at Shiloh and drove Bragg out
of Kentucky. The army was organized into three corps in September,
1862, but the following month (October 24th) the Department of the
Cumberland was recreated to consist of eastern Tennessee, Alabama,
and Georgia, and the Army of the Ohio, which had operated chiefly in
that region, now became officially the Fourteenth Army Corps, but
better known as the Army of the Cumberland. On October 30th, Buell
was replaced by Major-General W. S. Rosecrans, and the Fourteenth
Corps was reorganized into the Right Wing, Center, and Left Wing,
later the Fourteenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-first Army corps. The
last two were afterward consolidated as the Fourth Corps. With this
army, Rosecrans fought the battle of Stone's River, drove Bragg
across the Tennessee, and was defeated at Chickamauga. Major-General
George H. Thomas succeeded to the command October 20, 1863. The army
distinguished itself on Missionary Ridge and through the Atlanta
campaign (as a part of the Military Division of the Mississippi), and
in the campaign against Hood in Tennessee. The army had four
divisions of cavalry. It had a reserve corps for a short time, and
received two corps from the Army of the Potomac, which were finally
consolidated into the reorganized Twentieth Corps.
 
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Army of The Ohio
 
The Department of the Ohio having been merged in that of
Mississippi, March, 1862, it was recreated on August 19th, to consist
of the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and
Kentucky, east of the Tennessee River, and Major-General H. G. Wright
was placed at the head. The troops of the department were scattered
through many districts. Some of the brigades constituted the Army of
Kentucky, of which Major-General Gordon Granger was in command.
Wright was replaced March 25, 1863, by Major-General A. E. Burnside,
and shortly afterward the troops in the department were reorganized
into the Twenty-third Army Corps, and this force is the Army of the
Ohio associated with the Knoxville, Atlanta, and Nashville campaigns.
The Ninth Corps was attached to the department from March, 1863, to
March, 1864. Burnside was succeeded in turn by Major-Generals J. G.
Foster, J. M. Schofield, and George Stoneman. A cavalry division
organized in April, 1864, was headed by Major-General Stoneman, and
afterward by Colonels Capron and Garrard. On January 17, 1865, the
troops still in the department (the Twenty-third Corps having gone to
North Carolina) were annexed to the Department of the Cumberland.
 
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Army of the Mississippi
 
The Army of the Mississippi had a short existence, being
organized February 23d, and discontinued October 26, 1862. Its first
commander was Major-General John Pope, who was succeeded, June 26th,
by Major-General W. S. Rosecrans. This army consisted of five
divisions, a flotilla brigade, and several brigades of cavalry, and
operated on the Mississippi in the spring of 1862, capturing Island
No. 10; before Corinth in May, 1862, and at Iuka and Corinth in
September and October, 1862. Most of the troops went into the
Thirteenth Army Corps.
 
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Army of Virginia
 
To obtain closer organization in the various commands
operating in Virginia, President Lincoln, on June 26, 1862,
constituted the Army of Virginia out of Major-General Fremont's
forces (Mountain Department), those of Major-General McDowell
(Department of the Rappahannock), those of Major-General Banks
(Department of the Shenandoah), and Brigadier-General Sturgis'
brigade from the Military District of Washington. This last, an
unorganized body of troops, did not join the army at once. Major-
General John Pope was placed at the head of the new organization,
which was divided into three corps. Exclusive of. Sturgis' troops it
numbered between forty and fifty thousand men, and was augmented
later by troops from three corps of the Army of the Potomac. A corps
of the Army of Virginia checked " Stonewall " Jackson's advance at
Cedar Mountain, on August 9th, but the entire organization was
defeated at Manassas by Jackson and Longstreet, August 29th and 30th,
and withdrew to the lines of Washington. On September 12th, the Army
of Virginia was merged in the Army of the Potomac.
 
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Army of the Southwest
 
Created December 25, 1861, from troops in portions of the
Department of Missouri. It was merged in the District of Eastern
Arkansas, Department of Tennessee, December 13, 1862, and was
commanded during its existence by Brigadier-Generals S. R. Curtis,
Frederick Steele, E. A. Carr and, W. A. Gorman. This army fought many
minor but important engagements in Missouri and Arkansas, including
Bentonville, Sugar Creek, and Pea Ridge.
 
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Army of West Virginia
 
The troops in the Department of West Virginia were taken from
the Eighth Army Corps when the department was reorganized, June 28,
1863. The department commanders were Brigadier-General B. F. Kelley,
Major-Generals Franz Sigel, David Hunter, George Crook, Brigadier-
General J. D. Stevenson, Brevet Major-General S. S. Carroll, and
Major-Generals W. S. Hancock and W. H. Emory. In the campaign against
Lieutenant-General Early (June-October, 1864), the two divisions
(about seventy-five hundred men) under Crook were called the Army of
West Virginia. This force was prominent at the Opequon, Fisher's
Hill, Cedar Creek, and other engagements. After the campaign, the
troops returned to the various districts in the department.
 
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Department of Virginia and North Carolina
Army of the James
 
The Department of Virginia was created in May, 1861, and the
troops therein were organized into the Seventh Army Corps on July 22,
1862. This corps was divided between Fort Monroe, Norfolk,
Portsmouth, Yorktown, and other places. The Eighteenth Army Corps,
created December 24, 1862, from troops in the Department of North
Carolina was transferred to the Department of Virginia and North
Carolina July 15, 1863, when the two departments were united, and the
troops therein were all merged in the Eighteenth Corps. This was
reorganized in April, 1864, and the Tenth Corps being transferred
from the Department of the South, the whole force was called the Army
of the James. Its principal commander was Major-General Benjamin F.
Butler, although Major-Generals E. O. C. Ord and D. B. Birney held
command for short periods. On December 3, 1864, the two corps were
discontinued, the white troops being formed into the Twenty-fourth
Army Corps and the colored into the Twenty-fifth. On January 31,
1865, the two departments were again separated.
 
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Army and Department of the Gulf
 
Constituted February 23, 1862, comprising, in a general way,
the territory of the Gulf States occupied by the Federal troops.
Major-General Benjamin F. Butler was the first commander. He was
followed by Major-Generals N. P. Banks, S. A. Hurlbut, and E. R. S.
Canby, who commanded after the close of the war. There were, at
first, many separate bodies of troops scattered over the department.
One of these, the Nineteenth Army Corps, was organized in January,
1863, and was discontinued as a corps in this department November 7,
1864. The Thirteenth Army Corps joined that of the Tennessee in
August, 1863, and remained until June, 1864. A detachment of the
Sixteenth Corps, also from the Army of the Tennessee, joined for the
Red River expedition, in March, 1864. On May 7, 1864, the Department
of the Gulf was merged in the Military Division of West Mississippi,
but retained a separate existence.
 
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Army of Georgia
 
The Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps on the march to the
sea and through the Carolinas (November 1864- April 1865) were so
known. This force was commanded by Major-General Henry W. Slocum, and
constituted the left wing of Sherman's army.
 
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Army of the Frontier
 
The field forces in Missouri and Kansas were organized into
the Army of the Frontier on October 12, 1862. It was commanded by
Major-Generals J. M. Schofield and F. J. Herron, and by Major-General
James G. Blunt temporarily. It was very active during its existence,
and fought many minor engagements in the Southwest, including dark's
Mill, Missouri, and Prairie Grove, Arkansas, and the capture of Van
Buren, Arkansas. The army went out of existence June 5, 1863, and its
troops were scattered among the districts in Tennessee and Missouri.
 
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Army of the Mountain Department
 
Created March 11, 1862, from the Department of Western
Virginia. On March 29th, Brigadier-General Rosecrans turned over the
troops therein to Major-General John C. Fremont. This force co-
operated with Banks and McDowell against " Stonewall" Jackson in the
Shenandoah valley, and its principal engagements were those at
McDowell and Cross Keys. On June 26, 1862, the Mountain Department
became the First Corps, Army of Virginia.
 
 

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CONFEDERATE ARMIES
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Army of the Shenandoah
 
Major-General Kenton Harper, of the Virginia State forces,
had collected about two thousand Virginia volunteers at Harper's
Ferry as early as April 21, 1861. He was relieved on the 28th by
Colonel Thomas J. Jackson, and the mustering in of volunteers went
rapidly on. On May 24th, Brigadier-General Joseph E. Johnston assumed
command of the troops, and on June 30th, there were 10,654 present
for duty, in four brigades and cavalry. This was the force that
opposed Major-General Patterson in the Valley, and it was known as
the Army of the Shenandoah. It took part in the engagement at Falling
Waters, July 2d, and the skirmishes near Bunker Hill and Charlestown.
Strengthened with eight Southern regiments, this army started for
Manassas, on July 18th, and took part in the first battle of Bull
Run. After this, it formed a part of the Confederate Army of the
Potomac.
 
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Army of the Peninsula
 
The Department of the Peninsula was established on May 26,
1861, and Colonel John B. Magruder was put in command. The troops
therein were organized into divisions in November, and denominated
the Army of the Peninsula. In December, the aggregate present was
about sixteen thousand. On April 12, 1862, it was merged in the Army
of Northern Virginia-constituting, under Major-General Magruder, the
right wing of that army.
 
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Army of the Northwest
 
The troops assigned to operate in northwestern Virginia were
placed under the command of Brigadier-General R. S. Garnett on June
8, 1861, and were subsequently known as the Army of the Northwest.
This was the force that opposed McClellan and Rosecrans in West
Virginia, and was defeated at Rich Mountain and other places. On July
13th, Garnett was killed while retreating, and Brigadier-General
Henry R. Jackson was put in command, to be superseded, within a week,
by Brigadier-General W. W. Loring. Early in 1862, dissension arose
between Loring and T. J. Jackson, commanding the Valley District
(Department of Northern Virginia), which led to the latter preferring
charges against the commander of the Army of the Northwest. As a
result, the Secretary of War, on February 9, 1862, divided the army,
sending some of the regiments to Knoxville, some to the Aquia
District, and the remainder to the Army of the Potomac (Department of
Northern Virginia). After this, the forces under Brigadier-General
Edward Johnson stationed at Camp Alleghany, and sometimes called the
Army of the Alleghany, continued to be called the Army of the
Northwest. Its aggregate strength in March, 1862, was about four
thousand. It finally came under Jackson in the Valley District and
passed into the Army of Northern Virginia.
 
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Army of the Potomac (Confederate)
 
On May 24, 1861, Brigadier-General M. L. Bonham was placed in
command of the troops on the line of Alexandria. On the 31st, he was
relieved by Brigadier-General P. G. T. Beauregard. The forces here
gathered were denominated the Army of the Potomac (afterward First
Corps, Army of the Potomac) and consisted of six brigades, some
unattached troops, and artillery, by the date of the battle of Bull
Run. The Army of the Shenandoah joined this force on July 20th, when
Johnston superseded Beauregard. The Department of Northern Virginia
was created October 22, 1861, with Johnston at its head. It included
the District of the Potomac (Beauregard) ; Valley District (T. J.
Jackson), and Aquia District (T. H. Holmes.) In February, 1862, some
of the troops in the Army of the Northwest came under Johnston's
control, giving his entire command a strength of over eighty-two
thousand. Beauregard had been sent to Kentucky on January 29th, and
the troops in the Potomac district were now divided into four
divisions with several separate detachments. On March 14th, the Army
of the Potomac was denominated the Army of Northern Virginia. The
total force then amounted to about fifty-five thousand.
 
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Army of Northern Virginia
 
General J. E. Johnston was wounded at Seven Pines, May 81,
1862, and Major-General G. W. Smith took command of the Army of
Northern Virginia. On June 1st, General Robert E. Lee assumed
command. In April, the forces on the Peninsula had been included in
this army, and now the troops in eastern Virginia and North Carolina
were made part of it. By the end of July, 1862, the division
organization had been further concentrated into three commands, or
corps, headed by Major-Generals T. J. Jackson, James Longstreet, and
D. H. Hill, with cavalry under Brigadier-General J. E. B. Stuart, and
artillery under Brigadier-General W. N. Pendleton. There was an
aggregate present of about ninety-five thousand. Subsequently, the
army took a more permanent form in two corps commanded by Jackson and
Longstreet, with cavalry corps and artillery separate. Lieutenant-
General A. P. Hill was given the Second Corps after Jackson's death,
and on May 30, 1863, this was divided, with additions from the First
Corps, into the Second and Third corps, commanded by Lieutenant-
Generals R. S. Ewell and A. P. Hill respectively. The army numbered
about seventy thousand in the Gettysburg campaign. This organization
of the main body of the army continued throughout the war, although
other generals, for various reasons, commanded the corps from time to
time. A new corps of North Carolina and Virginia troops under
Lieutenant-General R. H. Anderson was added at the end of 1864.
Longstreet's corps, with the exception of Pickett's division, was
with the Army of Tennessee, and in eastern Tennessee, for a short
period in 1863 and 1864, at and after the battle of Chickamauga. The
last report of the army, February, 1865, showed an aggregate present
of over seventy-three thousand. The Army of Northern Virginia laid
down its arms at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865.

First Corps - Army of Northern Virginia

The organization of the volunteer Confederate forces under
Brigadier-General Beauregard into the First Corps, Army of the
Potomac, was announced on June 20, 1861. There were then six
brigades, which number was increased later to eight. The strength of
the corps was about thirty thousand. A division organization was
afterward adopted, and one of these divisions, commanded by Major-
General Longstreet, was denominated the Center of Position, Army of
Northern Virginia, at the opening of the Peninsula campaign. It
contained about fourteen thousand men. As the Second Division (or
Corps) of the army, the troops fought from Fair Oaks, where they were
known as the Right Wing, through the Seven Days' battles. Toward the
end of July, the army was further concentrated into commands of which
one, consisting of six divisions, was headed by Longstreet, and this,
during the campaign against Pope, was called the Right Wing or
Longstreet's Corps. After the battle of Antietam, the corps was
designated the First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. In September,
1863, Lee sent the corps, with the exception of Pickett's division,
to assist Bragg, and, as Longstreet's Corps, fought in the Army of
Tennessee at Chickamauga and remained in East Tennessee until April,
1864, when it rejoined the Army of Virginia. Major-General R. H.
Anderson succeeded to the command of the corps after Longstreet was
wounded at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6th. The latter returned
to his corps, October 19th, and continued at the head until the
surrender at Appomattox.

Second Corps - Army of Northern Virginia

On September 25, 1861, Major-General G. W. Smith was assigned
to the command of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, which was
organized to consist of all the troops not hitherto assigned to the
First Corps. After October 2nd, the force was known as the Second
Division and contained five brigades. It numbered almost twenty
thousand men, and passed into the Reserve, Second Division, and D. H.
Hill's Division of the Army of Northern Virginia. Most of these
troops finally came under the command of Lieutenant-General T. J.
Jackson and became known as the Second Corps of the Army of Northern
Virginia, after the battle of Antietam. After Jackson's death,
Lieutenant-General R. S. Ewell succeeded to the corps, after it had
been temporarily headed by Stuart and A. P. Hill. On May 30, 1863,
two divisions were detached to enter the Third Army Corps. The corps
was commanded by Lieutenant-General J. A. Early in the Shenandoah
campaign of 1864, and in the closing months of the war around
Petersburg, by Lieutenant-General John B. Gordon.

Third Corps - Army of Northern Virginia

Created from three divisions of the First and Second corps,
Army of Northern Virginia, on May 30, 1863, and put under the command
of Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill. Its first battle was Gettysburg.
Hill was killed in front of Petersburg, April 2, 1865, and the corps
was united with the First until the surrender at Appomattox.

Anderson's Corps - Army of Northern Virginia

Organized late in 1864 to consist of the divisions of Major-
Generals R. F. Hoke and Bushrod R. Johnson, and a battalion of
artillery under Colonel H. P. Jones. It contained an aggregate
strength of about fourteen thousand. Hoke's division served with the
First Army Corps and was sent to Wilmington, North Carolina, on
December, 20, 1864. Johnson's division remained with the Army of
Northern Virginia until the surrender at Appomattox.

Cavalry Corps - Army of Northern Virginia

The various troops of cavalry in this army were finally
gathered into a division of several brigades under the command of
Brigadier-General J. E. B. Stuart. By the date of the battle of
Gettysburg, July, 1863, the cavalry was organized in Divisions and
the organization was known as the Cavalry Corps. After the death of
Major-General J. E. B. Stuart, May, 1864, Major-General (later
Lieutenant-General) Wade Hampton took command. Major-General Fitzhugh
Lee also commanded several divisions at one time and was in command
of the corps at Appomattox.
 
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Army of the Kanawha
 
The Confederate forces assigned to operate in the Kanawha
valley, West Virginia, were placed under the command of Brigadier-
General John B. Floyd on August II, 1861, and denominated the Army of
the Kanawha. This force and one under Brigadier-General Henry A. Wise
were its chief constituents. The troops took part in the engagement
at Carnifex Ferry. The strength of the command was about thirty-five
hundred. Some of the troops were sent with Floyd to the Central Army
of Kentucky, early in 1862, and formed one of its divisions. Several
of the regiments were captured at Fort Donelson when this post
capitulated to General Grant.
 
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Army of Eastern Kentucky
 
A title applied to the troops under Brigadier-General
Humphrey Marshall, consisting of the militia of Wise, Scott and Lee
counties, in 1861. It was a small force of about fifteen hundred men,
and was scattered by Federal troops under Brigadier-General James A.
Garfield. Its chief action was at Pound Gap, March 16, 1862.
 
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Army of New Mexico
 
Organized December 14, 1861, to embrace all the forces on the
Rio Grande above Fort Quitman, and those in the territories of New
Mexico and Arizona. Its main object was the conquest of California.
Brigadier-General H. H. Sibley was placed in command. He had about
thirty-seven hundred men. His troops won the battle of Valverde,
occupied Santa Fe and fought at Glorieta (or Apache Canon). The army
was forced to retreat into Texas, in April, 1862, by Federal troops
under Colonel E. R. S. Canby. Sibley was relieved of the command in
December, 1862.
 
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Army of Louisiana
 
At the beginning of the war, the Louisiana State troops,
commanded by Major-General Braxton Bragg and later by Colonel P. O.
HEBERT, were sometimes designated the Army of Louisiana.
 
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Army of Pensacola
 
The forces at or near Pensacola, Florida, under Major-General
Braxton Bragg, were designated the Army of Pensacola on October 22,
1861. Brigadier-General A. H. Gladden had temporary command in
December, and Brigadier-General Samuel Jones took charge on January
27, 1862. The force then numbered eighty-one hundred men, divided
among regiments from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and
Mississippi. On March 13, the army was discontinued, the regiments
entering the Army of the Mississippi or assigned for duty elsewhere.
Pensacola was evacuated by the Confederate troops on the 9th of May.
 
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Army of Mobile
 
On January 27, 1862, the command of Brigadier-General Jones
M. Withers, consisting of Alabama troops in and around the city of
Mobile, was designated the Army of Mobile. Its strength was about ten
thousand. It was subsequently commanded by Colonel J. B. Villepigue,
temporarily, and Brigadier-General Samuel Jones, after March 15th.
Many of the regiments entered the Army of the Mississippi and fought
at Shiloh under Withers. More regiments were sent to that army, and
on June 27, the Army of Mobile was discontinued.
 
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Central Army of Kentucky
 
Brigadier-General S.B. Buckner assumed command of the forces
in central Kentucky, September, 1861, and he was followed October
28th, by General Albert Sidney Johnston. The troops were organized in
two divisions with a reserve, and a third division, under Brigadier-
General John B. Floyd, was added later on. Major-General Hardee had
temporary command, December, 1861-February, 1862. On March 29, 1862,
the Central Army of Kentucky, whose strength was about twenty-three
thousand, was consolidated with the Army of the Mississippi, under
the latter designation, with General Johnston in command and General
P. G. T. Beauregard second.
 
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Army of East Tennessee - Army of Kentucky
 
In February, 1862, Major-General E. Kirby Smith was sent to
Knoxville to assume command of the troops in East Tennessee. With the
army thus organized, it was intended to create a diversion in favor
of General A. S. Johnston's operations with the Army of the
Mississippi. The Army of East Tennessee was engaged in many minor
engagements. On August 25th, the organization was designated the Army
of Kentucky and was composed of three divisions. It led the advance
in Bragg's invasion of Kentucky and was successful at the battle of
Richmond, August 30th, raising great hopes for the Confederate
conquest of Kentucky. On November 20, 1862, the Army of Kentucky was
merged as Smith's Corps in the Army of Tennessee.
 
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Army of the Mississippi
 
From troops in the Western Department (Department No. 2) was
created the Army of the Mississippi on March 5, 1862, and to General
P. G. T. Beauregard was given the command. The army was divided into
two corps headed by Major-Generals Leonidas Polk and Braxton Bragg.
On March 29th, the army was joined to the Central Army of Kentucky
with its three divisions, reserve corps, and cavalry. General A. S.
Johnston, of the latter, took command of the Army of the Mississippi,
that name having been preserved. Beauregard was second in command.
The whole body was gathered at Corinth (except a force at Fort
Pillow) in three corps, a reserve corps, and cavalry, and this was
the organization that fought at Shiloh, when its strength was about
forty thousand. The death of General Johnston placed the chief
command upon General Beauregard, who was relieved June 27, 1862, by
Major-General Hardee, and he, on August 15th, by Major-General Bragg.
The army was transferred to Chattanooga in July. Major-General Polk
had temporary command from September 28th to November 7, 1862, when,
on the return of Bragg, the organization was called the Army of
Tennessee.

Third Corps - Army of the Mississippi

Major-General W.J. Hardee, who had been commander in northwestern
Arkansas, was placed at the head of the Third Corps of the Army of
the Mississippi on its reorganization, March 29, 1862. In August, the
corps was merged in the Left Wing of the Army of the Mississippi.

Reserve Corps - Army of the Mississippi

Commanded by Major-General George B. Crittenden on March 29, 1862,
and by Major-General J. C. Breckinridge after April 6th, and, later,
by Brigadier-General Jones M. Withers. After Shiloh, and the siege of
Corinth, the corps went to Louisiana and fought the battle of Baton
Rouge, August 6, 1862, with the Federal troops under Brigadier-
General Thomas Williams. Then it returned with Breckinridge to form
the Army of Middle Tennessee and was merged in Hardee's (Second)
Corps, Army of Tennessee, as the First Division, in November, 1862.
 
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Army of Tennessee
 
The joining of the Army of Kentucky with the Army of the
Mississippi, on November 20, 1862, was the origin of the Army of
Tennessee-the great Confederate army of the West. There were three
Corps and a division of cavalry, with an effective total of forty-
seven thousand. General Braxton Bragg was in command. This army
fought the battle of Stone's River, went through the Tullahoma
campaign, and fought the battle of Chickamauga, assisted by
Longstreet's Corps from the Army of Northern Virginia. It was driven
from Chattanooga in November, 1863, by Grant's forces. After the
battle of Chickamauga, the corps were reorganized several times.
Bragg was removed from the command on December 2, 1863, and until
General Johnston assumed it, on December 27th, both Hardee and Polk
were in temporary command. Polk was sent to the Department of
Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana before the end of December.
The army spent the winter around Dalton, Georgia, and faced Sherman's
advance in May, 1864, in two infantry and one cavalry corps. Polk
brought back his divisions, which he called the Army of Mississippi,
and these forces were consolidated with the Army of Tennessee on July
26th, after Polk had been killed. On July 18th, Johnston was replaced
by General John B. Hood. After the capture of Atlanta, the army
returned to Tennessee, and, failing to cut off Major-General
Schofield's command at Franklin, was routed by Major-General Thomas
at Nashville (December 15-16, 1864). In February, 1865, General
Johnston was again placed in command of the Army of Tennessee, as
well as the troops in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. The army
had greatly dwindled. Lieutenant-General A. P. Stewart was at the
actual head of the Army of Tennessee after March 16th, and Johns-
ton's enlarged command included troops from the far South under
Hardee, which, in February, had been organized in a corps, and those
in North Carolina under Bragg. The aggregate present of the old Army
of Tennessee was about twenty thousand. The army surrendered to
Sherman in North Carolina, April 26,1865.

First Corps - Army of the Mississippi and of Tennessee

Major-General Leonidas Polk commanded from June, 1861, to
March, 1862, the First Division in the Western Department (No. 2),
the troops of which were scattered along the Mississippi from
Columbus, Kentucky, to Memphis, and in the interior of Tennessee and
Mississippi. It numbered about twenty-five thousand men. On the
organization of the Army of the Mississippi in March, 1862, this
division was called the First Grand Division, and after the
consolidation with the Central Army of Kentucky, on March 29th, the
First Corps, Army of the Mississippi. On August 15th, Polk's Corps
was reorganized as the Right Wing in ten divisions, with over fifteen
thousand present for duty. In the Army of Tennessee, the Right Wing
became the First, or Polk's Corps. After the battle of Chickamauga,
Polk was relieved of the command, and both corps of the army
underwent reorganization. The leading corps was thereafter known as
Hardee's, or Cheatham's Corps, from the names of its commanders.

Second Corps - Army of the Mississippi and of Tennessee

Major-General Braxton Bragg was given command of the Second
Corps of the Army of the Mississippi on its organization, March 29,
1862. There were ten divisions, composed chiefly of Alabama,
Mississippi, and Louisiana troops. In July, Major-General Samuel
Jones had command, and on August 15th, when General Bragg resumed
command of the whole army, his former corps passed to the control of
Major-General Hardee. There was an aggregate present of about sixteen
thousand men. On November 7th, the Left Wing, in an organization that
had a short existence after August 15th, again became the Second (or
Hardee's) Corps. In July, 1863, Lieutenant-General Hardee was
relieved by Lieutenant-General D. H. Hill, who commanded at
Chickamauga, and the later commanders were Major-Generals J. C.
Breckinridge, T. C. Hindman, Lieutenant-General J. B. Hood, Major-
General C. L. Stevenson and Lieutenant-General S. D. Lee. After 1864,
the corps was known as Hood's, or Lee's Corps, Hardee having assumed
command of the other corps.

Wheeler's Cavalry Corps - Army of Tennessee

On January 22, 1863, Major-General Joseph Wheeler was
assigned to command all the cavalry in Middle Tennessee. On March
16th, the cavalry divisions in the Army of Tennessee were designated
as corps, and were given the names of their respective commanders.
Wheeler and Van Dorn. The corps were organized into divisions and
brigades, and Wheeler's Corps, sometimes known as the Second Corps,
had an aggregate present of nearly twelve thousand. It displayed
great activity in Tennessee, making numerous raids and guarding the
flanks of the army. After the battle of Chickamauga, it made a famous
raid on Rosecrans' communications, October, 1863. It also operated on
the flanks of the army during the Atlanta and other campaigns until
the close of the war.

Van Dorn's Cavalry Corps - Army of Tennessee

On March 16, 1863, Major-General Van Dorn's Cavalry Division
in the Army of Tennessee was called Van Dorn's, or the First Cavalry
Corps. It had an average aggregate present of about eight thousand,
and was a valuable adjunct to General Bragg's army.
 
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Army of Middle Tennessee
 
When Major-General John C. Breckinridge assumed command of
the forces around Murfreesboro on October 28, 1862, they were
denominated the Army of Middle Tennessee. There were three brigades,
with cavalry under Brigadier-General Forrest, who was shortly
relieved by Brigadier-General Wheeler. When Bragg advanced from
Chattanooga to oppose Rosecrans, the Army of Middle Tennessee became
identified with a division of Hardee's Corps, Army of Tennessee.
 
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Missouri State Guard
 
On June 12, 1861, Governor C. F. Jackson of Missouri, in
defiance of the United States military government, issued a call for
fifty thousand of the State militia for active service. At the time
of the flight of the governor and his followers to the extreme
southwestern corner of the State, he was joined by Price. At that
time, the whole Confederate State force amounted to about three
thousand men. This Missouri State Guard was in command of Brigadier-
Generals Sterling Price and M. M. Parsons from October 29, 1861, to
March 17, 1862, when it merged in the Army of the West.
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Army of the West
 
Major-General Earl Van Dorn assumed command of the troops in
the Trans-Mississippi District of Western Department (No. 2), on
January 29, 1862. Out of the force grew the Army of the West, so
called after March 4th. It was largely composed of the Missouri State
Guard. This army fought at Pea Ridge and elsewhere in Arkansas, and,
being transferred across the Mississippi, was present at the siege of
Corinth. The First Division was commanded by Major-General Sterling
Price after March 22d, and the Second by Major-General Samuel Jones.
It had three divisions after May, and a strength of over twenty
thousand. On June 20th, Van Dorn was replaced by Major-General John
P. McCown, who had commanded the Third Division, and he in turn by
Major-General Price, on July 3d. The transfer of the Army of the
Mississippi to Chattanooga at the end of July, left the Army of the
West in control of western Tennessee, and northern Mississippi. One
division of the army fought the battle of Iuka, September 10th. On
September 28th, a junction was made with Van Dorn's new command of
troops in Mississippi, and the new organization was denominated the
Army of West Tennessee. To Price was assigned a corps, which
continued to be called, sometimes, the Army of the West.
 
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Army of West Tennessee - Army of Mississippi
 
Major-General Van Dorn was transferred June 20, 1862, from
the Army of the West to the Department of Southern Mississippi and
East Louisiana. His troops occupied Vicksburg, and a force from the
Reserve Corps of the Army of the Mississippi, under Major-General
Breckinridge, fought the battle of Baton Rouge, August 6th. On
September 28th, Van Dorn's troops joined the Army of the West to
oppose Rosecrans' activities in northern Mississippi, and the
combined force was denominated the Army of West Tennessee, with Van
Dom at the head. It fought the battle of Corinth (October 4th), and
on December 7th its name was changed to the Army of Mississippi. It
consisted of two corps, headed by Van Dorn and Price, the chief
control having passed to Lieutenant-General John C. Pemberton, at the
head of the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. Van Dorn,
with his cavalry, made a famous raid in northern Mississippi in
December, capturing the Federal supply depot at Holly Springs. In
January, 1863, the corps were changed into divisions. The title, Army
of Mississippi, ceased to be used shortly after this date. The chief
force under Pemberton surrendered at Vicksburg. Meanwhile, Van Dorn
had been killed in Tennessee, May 8, 1863, and Price had been ordered
to the Trans-Mississippi Department, February 27,1863.
 
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Southern Army - Trans-Mississippi Army
 
The forces in the Department of West Louisiana and Texas were
constituted the Southwestern Army, January 14, 1863, and the command
was given to Lieutenant-General E. Kirby Smith. On February 9th, the
command was enlarged so as to embrace the whole Trans-Mississippi
Department, which, on May 26, 1862, had been separated from the
Western Department (Department No. 2). Major-General T. H. Holmes had
previously commanded in the Trans-Mississippi. Smith had about thirty
thousand men, widely scattered from Fort Smith, Arkansas, to the Rio
Grande. Major-General Holmes was defeated at Helena, July 4, 1863.
The various portions of the army were constantly occupied in small
engagements. These forces opposed the Federal Red River expedition in
1864. At the latest returns, in 1865, the aggregate present of the
force was about forty-three thousand. They were the last Confederate
troops to surrender, May 26, 1865.
 
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Army of Missouri
 
In August, 1864, General E. Kirby Smith ordered Major-General
Sterling Price to move into Missouri. It was expected that the
various independent bands could be organized and bring at least
twenty thousand recruits into the Confederate army. Price's force,
consisting of the divisions of Fagan, Marmaduke, and Shelby, amounted
to nearly twelve thousand men, and is variously called the Army of
the Missouri, Price's Expeditionary Corps, and the Army in the Field.
After a very active campaign, Price was driven into Arkansas at the
end of November by Major-Generals Rosecrans and Pleasanton, and the
Army of the Missouri again became identified with the forces in the
Trans-Mississippi Department.
 
------------------------------------------------------------
 
Army of Mississippi
 
In December, 1863, Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk,
succeeding Pemberton, was put in command of the force of the
Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana. It had two
divisions of cavalry and a strength of about twenty thousand. This is
the force that contended with Major-General Sherman in Mississippi
during the winter of 1864. In May, Polk joined the Army of Tennessee
to oppose Sherman's advance to Atlanta, and he then denominated his
troops the Army of Mississippi. Polk was killed on Pine Mountain,
Georgia, June 14th, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-General A. P.
Stewart. On July 26th, the Army of Mississippi was joined to the Army
of Tennessee as Stewart's Corps.
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Fields Of Conflict -- The American Civil War

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